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The Romanization System

Our romanization system is the same as the one that Library of Congress are using, after the dictionary of Stangers. This is a short introduction of the romanization system, and even if it’s short and consist it would be extensive enough for you to use in Your search.

Click on any of these links for help with your searches, or scroll down the page until you find the topic you want:

The Persian Alphabeth
Persian Romanization
The Arabic Alphabeth
Arabic Romanization
The Kudrdish Alphabeth

The Persian Alphabeth


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Persian Romanization

Vowels and Diphthongs.

Short vowels.

Long vowels.





1.                  Letters which may be romanized in different ways depending on their context

1.1 To indicate the long vowel romanized a


1.2 The consonant romanized v

varzish -

1.3 Silent following is retained is romanization

khvastan –

khvud –

1.4 The long u – vowel (and short u –vowel in some

monosyllables) is romanized u

dur –

1.5 The diphthong romanized aw

Firdawsi –

2.is used to represent:

2.1 The consonant romanized y

yar –

2.2 The long vowel romanized i

Iran –

2.3 The diphthong romanized ay

ayvan –

2.4 The final long vowel romanized a >/P>

Mustafa –

3.    Orthographic symbols other than letters and vowel sign

3.1 Hamzah

3.1.1 When hamzah is in the middle or in the end it’s used in this way

pa` in –

3.1.2 When used as a mark of izafah is it romanized in this way

astanah-’i dar –

3.1.2 When used to mark the indefinite article is it romanized in this way

khanah’i –

3.2 Maddah

3.2.1 Intitial is romanized a

ab –

3.2.2 Medial , when it represents the phonetic combination ais romanized in the following way

ma’asir –

3.3 Tanvin which occur chiefly in Arabic word, is

romanized in the following way:

o    un

o    in

o    an

3.4 Tashdid is the mark for doubling the letter or digraph concerned

khurram –

4.    Grammatical structure as it affects romanization.

4.1 Izafah

4.1.1 When two words are associated in the relation known asizafah, the first word is followed by an additional letter or syllable in romanization.

4.1.2 When the first word bears no special mark of izafah, it is followed by - i

dar-i bagh -

4.1.3 When the first word is marked by the addition of , it is followed by -í

qali –’i Iran –

4.1.4 When the first word is marked by the addition of }, it is followed by - yi

ru-yi zamin –

5.    Affixes and compounds.

5.1 When the affix and the word with which it is connected grammatically written in Persian, the two are separated in romanization by a single -.

Khanah-ha –

5.2 The Arabic article al is separated by a hyphen, in romanization,

Dar al-mu’allimin -

5.3 When elements of a compound are written separately in Persian, they are separated in romanization by a single -.

mariz-khanah –

shah – jahan –or

6.    Orthography of Persian in romanization.

6.1 Rules for the capitalization of English are followed, except that the Arabic article al is lower cased in all positions.

6.2 The single - is used:

6.2.1 To separate two letters representing two distinct consonantal sounds, when the combination might otherwise be read as a digraph.

marz-ha –

6.3 Foreign words in a Persian context, are romanized according to the rules of Persian.


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The Arabic Alphabeth


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Arabic Romanization

1.    Arabic letters which may be romanized in different ways depending on their context.

1.1 The letters and may represent

wad -

hiyal -

1.2 The long vowels romanized a and u respectively

ula -

iman -

1.3 The diphtongs romanized aw and ay respectively

awj -

aysar -

1.4 Alif , , is used to represent the long vowel romanized


fa‘il -

1.5 Final , is used in the following way

1.5.1 can represent the long vowel romanized a

hatta -

1.6 When the noun or adjective ending in is indefinite, or is preceded by the definite article , in romanized h

salah -

1.7 When the word ending in is in the construct state, is romanized t

Wizarat al-Tarbiyah -

2.Romanization of Arabic Ortographic symbols other than letters and vowel signs.

2.1 Hamzah

2.1.1 It is only romanized in the medial and final form

da‘im -

malaa -

2.2 Maddah

Look under the Persian Maddah, the same rules occures in Arabic as well.

2.3 ;Tashdid

2.3.1 representing the combination of long vowel plus consonant, is romanized uw

‘aduw -

2.3.2 representing the combination of diphtong plus consonant, is romanized ayy

shawwal -

2.3.3 representing the comination of long vowel plus consonant, is romanized iy

al-Misriyah -

2.3.4 final is romanized i

2.3.5 medial and final, who are represented in the romanization as ayy

ayyam -

2.4 Tanwin.

2.4.1 Occurs in the indefinite nouns derived from defective roots.

qadin -

2.4.2 Indicates the adverbial use of a noun or adjective

faj‘atan -

3.    Grammatical structure as it affects romanization

3.1 Final inlections of verbs are retained in romanization, exept in paus

man waliya Misr -

3.2 Final inflection of nouns and adjectives with vocalic endings not represented in romanization, except preceding pronominal suffixes

Ma‘had Mawlaya al-Hasan -

3.3 Pronouns, pronominal suffixes and demontrative

3.3.1 Vocal endings are retained in romanization

ana wa-anta -

3.3.2 At the close of a phrase or sentence, the ending is romanized in its pausal form

Hayatuhu wa-‘asruh -

3.4 Prepositions and conjuctions

3.4.1 Final vowels of separable prepositions and conjunctions are retained in romanization

anna -

3.4.2 Inseparable preposition, conjunctions, and other prefixes are connected with what follows by a hyphen

bi-hi -

3.5 The definite article

3.5.1 The romanized form al is connected with the following word by a hyphen

al-kitab al-thani -

3.5.2 When al is inital in the word, and when it follows an inseparable preposition or conjunction, it is always romanized al regardless of whether the preceding word, as romanized, ends in a vowel or a consonant

ila al-an -

4.    Orthography of Arabic in romanization.

4.1 The hyphen is used in the following way

4.1.1 To connect the definite article al with the word to which attaced.

4.1.2 Between an inseparable prefix and what follows.

4.1.3 Between bin and the following element in personal names when they are written in Arabic as a single word

5.    Examples of irregular Arabic orthography

5.1 Note the romanization of alone and in combination

Allah -

bismillah -

5.2 Note the romanization of personal names

Bahjat -

5.3 and are both romanized ibn in all positions

Bin Khiddah -

Bin -‘Abd Allah -

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The Kurdish Alphabeth

The idafah is always represented by the and is considered attached to the word preceding it. Following a consonant it is transliterated with i.

                     andam-i -

Following a vowel it is changed to y.

                     yarida-y -

2. The conjunction u is considered a part of the word preceding it and is separated from the word by a hyphen.

                     zhar-u chuna -

When the preceding letter is a vowel it is transliterated as v

                     piri-v sad´ayb -

3. The particles ba - and la - are considered a part of the word following and are attached by a hyphen.

                     la-Baghda -

                     ba-tirumbel -

4. The only vowel which is not written is the zher which is transliterated with the undotted ii as in Turkish.

                     kirdit -

5. Arabic loan words which are not transcribed into Kurdish spelling are to be transliterated according to the table for Arabic.

                     fard -

                     muthaqqaf -